Aviation Fuel Testing
INEOS Laboratory offers a testing and inspection service for Jet A1 grade aviation fuel.
We are a well-established lab with a highly experienced staff. Whether you require a one off test, ongoing analytical support or a customised programme of work, we are committed to understanding your requirements and delivering the service you need.
We have an extensive analytical capability, with techniques such as GC; GCMS; ICP; HPLC; IC; XRF; FTIR; UV as well as a range of specialist analytical testing equipment for many applications, such as sulphur measurement.
We can check fuels for contamination by water, solids or other fuels.
Please refer to the list of tests below for more information on our methods, or download the full testing services PDF for further test information.
INEOS Laboratory offers a testing and inspection service for Jet A1 grade aviation fuel.
INEOS Laboratory Grangemouth offers a testing service for petrol (to BS EN228) and light distillate materials.
INEOS Laboratory Grangemouth offers a testing service for middle distillate materials, including diesel, gas oil, marine fuel and kerosene.
INEOS Laboratory Grangemouth offers a testing service for fuel oils and heavy distillate materials.
INEOS Laboratory Grangemouth offers a testing service for Water samples.
INEOS Laboratory Grangemouth offers a testing service for Final Effluent.
Please contact us for any further information you may need.
Tests marked * are ISO17025 accredited
|Density - oscillating U-tube method*||
A UKAS ISO17025 accredited method for the determination of the density of crude petroleum and related products within the range 600 to 1100 kg/m3 by oscillating U-tube density meter. Suitable for liquids of any vapour pressure, that can be kept a single phase with light end evaporation. The density value measured at one temperature can be converted to the density at another temperature using petroleum measurement tables.
|Distillation characteristics of petroleum products - Micro distillation method||
Determination of the distillation characteristics of petroleum products having boiling range between 20 to 400°C at atmospheric pressure by automatic micro distillation apparatus. This test method is applicable to such products as: light and middle distillates; automotive spark ignition engine fuels; automotive spark ignition fuels containing up to 10% ethanol; aviation gasolines; aviation turbine fuels; regular and low sulphur diesel fuels; biodiesel blends up to 20% biodiesel; special petroleum spirits; naphthas; white spirits; kerosines; burner fuels and marine fuels and requires only a small test sample. This method can be used for hydrocarbons with a narrow boiling range, eg organic solvents or oxygenated compounds. This test method is not suitable for products containing residual materials.
|Mercaptans, hydrogen sulphide, elemental sulphur and peroxides - Doctor test method||
Doctor test for detecting the presence of mercaptans (thiols), hydrogen sulphide, elemental sulphur and peroxide in automotive fuels, kerosines and other middle distillate petroleum products. The presence of a number of substances in the test sample can affect the result of the test: Peroxides – only suitable for trace levels of peroxides; Carbon disulphide and phenolic substances can impact the test.
|Electrical conductivity of aviation and distillate fuels||
Determination of the electrical rest conductivity of aviation and distillate fuels, with or without a static dissipater additive, in the range 1 pS/m to 2000 pS/m using a portable meter.
|Corrosiveness to copper - Copper Strip Test||
This standard specifies a method for the determination of the corrosiveness to copper of liquid petroleum products and certain solvents. Volatile products, having a maximum vapour pressure of 124 kPa at 37.8°C are included.
|Hydrocarbon types in petroleum products - Fluorescent indicator adsorption method||
Fluorescent indicator adsorption method for the determination of hydrocarbon types over the concentration ranges: 5 to 99% (v/v) aromatic hydrocarbons; 0.3 to 55% (v/v) olefinic hydrocarbons; 1 to 95% (v/v) saturated hydrocarbons in petroleum fractions that distil below 315°C. May be applicable to concentrations outside these ranges, but the precision has not been determined. This test method is for use with full boiling range products, however precision statement does not apply to fractions with narrow boiling ranges near the 315°C limit, which will give unreliable results. Samples containing dark coloured components that interfere with reading the chromatographic bands cannot be analysed. Oxygenated blending components are not detected, but do not interfere with the determination of the hydrocarbon types at normal concentrations.
|Thiol (mercaptan) sulphur in light and middle distillate fuels - Potentiometric method||
Determination of thiol sulphur (mercaptan sulphur) in light distillates, such as gasoline and naphtha fractions, and middle distillate fuels, such as kerosine and gas oil, in the range of 0.0003 to 0.0100% (m/m), (3 to 100 mg/kg). Organic sulphur compounds, such as sulphides, disulphides and thiophene do not interfere. Elemental sulphur does not interfere at contents less than 0.0005% (m/m). Hydrogen sulphide interferes if not removed.
|Sulphur in petroleum and petroleum products by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry||
This test method covers the determination of total sulphur in petroleum and petroleum products in the range 20 - 1000 mg/Kg. These materials can include diesel fuel, jet fuel, kerosine, other distillate oil, naphtha, residual oil, lubricating base oil, hydraulic oil, crude oil, unleaded gasoline, gasohol, biodiesel, and similar petroleum products. For samples with high oxygen contents (>3 wt %) sample dilution or matrix matching must be performed to assure accurate results.
|Filter blocking tendency||
Method B: Determination of the filter blocking tendency (FBT) of middle distillate fuel oils and non-petroleum liquid fuels such as biodiesel and is applicable to fuels within the viscosity range of 1.5mm2/s to 6.0mm2/s at 40°C. The test produces a dimensionless value that defines the filter blocking tendency of a fuel caused by particulates. The value is calculated using the pressure across the filter or volume of fuel filtered at the end of the test.
|Cold Filter Blocking Tendency||
Method for the determination of the cold filter blocking tendency (CFBT) of diesel fuel containing 0 to 20% biodiesel.
|Distillation characteristics at atmospheric pressure||
Determination of the distillation characteristics of light and middle distillates at atmospheric pressure, by automatic apparatus. Samples will typically have end points below 400°C.
|Transparent and opaque liquids - kinematic viscosity and calculation of dynamic viscosity||
Determination of the kinematic and dynamic viscosities of transparent and opaque liquid hydrocarbons. The time for a volume of liquid to flow through a calibrated glass capillary viscometer under gravity is measured and the kinematic viscosity calculated by multiplying this time by the Viscometer Constant. Dynamic viscosity is kinematic viscosity x density.
|Flash point - Abel closed cup method||
ethod for the determination of the manual and automated closed-cup flash point of combustible liquids having flash points between –30.0°C to 75.0 C. The precision given for this method is only valid for flash points in the range −8.5°C to 75.0°C.
|Flash point - Pensky Martens closed cup method||
Pensky-Martens closed cup flash point test, for combustible liquids, with a flash point above 40°C. For condition monitoring of lube oils, Procedure A should be used for used and unused lubricating oils.
|Sulphur content of automotive fuels - Ultraviolet fluorescence method||
Test method for the determination of sulphur content in the range 3 to 500 mg/kg by ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence. This method is suitable for motor gasoline (petrol) containing up to 3.7% (m/m) oxygen - including those blended with ethanol up to about 10% (BS EN 228) and diesel fuels, including those containing up to 10% (V/V) fatty acid methylester (FAME), (BS EN590) and other products and feed streams. Halogens >3500 mg/kg interfere with this measurement. For diesel containing cetane improver the sample should be checked for nitrogen interference. The sulphur content is measured by pyrolysis of the sample followed by detection by UV fluorescence. For sulphur content <3ppm, ASTM D5453 is used.
|Total Sulphur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence||
Determination of total sulfur (up to 3ppm) in liquid hydrocarbons, such as naphthas, distillates, engine oil, ethanol, Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), and engine fuel such as gasoline, oxygen enriched gasoline (ethanol blends, E-85, M-85, RFG), diesel, biodiesel, diesel/biodiesel blends, and jet fuel. Samples containing 1.0 to 8000 mg/kg total sulfur can be analyzed, the method is applicable to liquid hydrocarbons containing less than 0.35 % (m/m) halogen(s). The sulphur content is measured by pyrolysis of the sample followed by detection by UV fluorescence. For sulphur contents >3ppm, IP490 is used.
|Determination of Quinizarin in Gas Oil - Spectrophotometric Method||
This method measures Quinizarin in marked gas oil in the range 0.04 - 3.00 mg/l. The Quinizarin is first extracted from the fuel and then analysed by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. Quantification is by comparison of the visible absorption spectrum to that of a standard solution.
|Free water and particulate contamination in distillate fuels and Haze rating - Visual inspection procedures||
ASTM D4176 Procedure 1
Procedure 1 provides a rapid pass/fail method for estimating the presence of suspended free water and solid particulate contamination in distillate fuels having distillation end points below 400°C and an ASTM colour of 5 or less. Procedure 2 provides a gross numerical rating of haze appearance.
|Water content of Petroleum Product - Dean & Stark distillation method *||
A UKAS ISO17025 accredited method for measuring up to 25% water in petroleum products by distillation. Volatile water soluble species in the sample will be quantified as water. Level >25% can be measured, but there is no precision data available.
|Freezing point of aviation fuels - Automatic laser method||
Test method for the determination of the temperature below which solid hydrocarbon crystals form in aviation turbine fuels. This test method can be used over the temperature range of -80 to 20°C, but the precision is only determined over the range -60 °C to -42°C.
|Saybolt Colour of Petroleum Products - Saybolt chromometer method||
This test method covers the determination of the colour of refined oils such as undyed motor and aviation gasoline, jet propulsion fuels, naphthas, kerosine, petroleum waxes and pharmaceutical white oils. NOTE: For determining the color of petroleum products darker than Saybolt Color − 16, see Test Method D1500. This test method reports results specific to this test method and recorded as "Saybolt Color units."
|Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), derived from bio-diesel fuel, in aviation turbine fuel: GC-MS with selective ion monitoring / scan detection method||
Method for the identification and quantification fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as a contaminant in aviation turbine fuel (AVTUR) by SIM mode GC/MS. This method measures the most common FAMEs in the range 4.5 to 150 mg/kg. Lighter FAME - eg that derived from coconut oil - may be subject to interference from AVTUR components and may not be quantified at low levels.
|Water separation characteristics of aviation turbine fuels by portable separometer||
This test method covers a rapid portable means for field and laboratory use to rate the ability of aviation turbine fuels to release entrained or emulsified water when passed through fiberglass coalescing material. The procedure section of this test method contains two different modes of test equipment operation. The primary difference between the modes of operation is the rate of fuel flow through the fiberglass coalescing material. Test method selection is dependent on the particular fuel to be tested.
|Naphthalene hydrocarbons in aviation turbine fuels by ultraviolet spectrophotometry||
This test method covers the determination, by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry, of the total concentration of naphthalene, acenaphthene, and alkylated derivatives of these hydrocarbons in jet fuels. This test method is designed to analyze fuels containing not more than 5% of such components and determines the maximum amount of naphthalenes that could be present.
|Antioxidant (AO32) content of aviation turbine fuel by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)||
This method is intended for the direct quantitative determination of commercial 2,4-dimethyl, 6-tertiary butyl phenol in aviation turbine fuels over the concentration range 5-40 mg/l by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
|Static dissipater additive (SDA) in aviation turbine fuel by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)||
This standard describes a procedure for determining the static dissipater additive (SDA) content of aviation turbine fuel over the range 1 mg/l to 12 mg/l, by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The SDA used to develop this test method was STADIS® 450 for aviation fuels.
|Existent gum content of aviation turbine fuel - Jet evaporation method||
Determination of the existent gum content of aviation turbine fuel. Large quantities of gum are indicative of contamination of fuel by higher boiling oils or particulate matter and generally reflect poor handling practices in distribution downstream of the refinery.
|Smoke point of kerosene, manual and automated methods||
Determination of the smoke point of kerosine (manual and automatic). The smoke point is associated with the hydrocarbon types in the kerosine.
|Acid number of aviation turbine fuels - Colour indicator method||
Determination of the acid constituents in aviation turbine kerosine (ATK) at levels below 0.100mg KOH/g, by colour indicator titration method. Trace acids remaining after treatment during the refining of aviation turbine fuels may cause corrosion of metals or impair the water separation characteristics of the fuel. This method is more sensitive at low levels than IP139.
|Particulate contaminant in aviation turbine fuels by laboratory filtration||
Gravimetric determination of particulate contamination in aviation turbine fuel by filtration. Due to the difficulty associated with obtaining reliable results, a single one-off determination by this method is of limited value. This method is used to indicate significant trends or changes in particulate levels at specific locations where typical values have been established. This information may be used to monitor the impact of operational changes. Precision has only been determined for 51 samples in the range 0.00 mg/l to 0.60mg/l. Particulate matter present in aviation turbine fuels should be minimised to avoid filter plugging and operational problems. Tolerable levels of particulate contaminants are not established for all points in fuel distribution systems but have to be stringently controlled.
|Thermal oxidation stability of gas turbine fuels (JFTOT)||
JFTOT procedure for rating the tendencies of aviation gas turbine fuel to deposit decomposition products within the fuel system. The test results are indicative of fuel stability during gas turbine operating and can be used to assess the level of deposits that form when liquid fuel contacts a heated surface at a specified temperature.
|Level of cleanliness of aviation turbine fuel - Portable automatic particle counter method||
Determination of the level of dispersed particles in aviation turbine fuel, specifically dirt particles and water droplets in the range from 4 μm(C) to 30 μm(C), up to a maximum of 60,000 cumulative counts per ml.
|Kerosene burning characteristics - 24 hour method||
Test method for the evaluation of the burning properties of kerosene, which is used for illumination and/or heating purposes, in the range 0 - 30 mg/kg.
|Smoke point of kerosene||
Procedure for the determination of the smoke point of kerosine. The smoke point is related to the hydrocarbon type composition and provides an indication of relative smoke-producing properties in a diffusion flame.
|Coumarin in kerosene by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)||
Method B: Detection and quantification of Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) in marked kerosene within the 0.2 – 4.0 mg/l range by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Note: 2 mg/l is the level of addition in the UK set by HMRC.
|Motor octane number (MON) of spark ignition engine fuel||
Motor octane number (MON) of motor gasoline (petrol) using a standard single cylinder, four stroke cycle, variable compression ratio, carburetted, CFR engine, operated at constant speed. MON is a measure of the knock characteristics of the fuel under severe operating conditions. This method covers entire scale range from 0 MON to 120 MON, but the working range is 40 MON to 120 MON. Typical motor fuel testing is in the range of 80 MON to 90 MON. This method covers gasoline containing up to 25% (V/V) ethanol.
|Research octane number (RON) of spark ignition engine fuel||
Research octane number (RON) of motor gasoline (petrol) using a standard single cylinder, four stroke cycle, variable compression ratio, carburetted, CFR engine, operated at constant speed. RON is a measure of the knock characteristics of the fuel under mild operating conditions. This method covers entire scale range from 0 RON to 120 RON, but the working range is 40 RON to 120 RON. Typical motor fuel testing is in the range of 88 RON to 101 RON. This method covers gasoline containing up to 25% (V/V) ethanol. This can be used for oxygenate-containing fuels containing up to 4.0 % (m/m) oxygen.
|Oxidation stability of gasoline - Induction period method||
This method measures the stability of motor gasoline under accelerated oxidation conditions. The result is an indication of gum formation in the gasoline over time, but cannot account for different storage conditions. The method is not suitable for gasoline components.
|Vapour pressure - Part 1: Determination of air saturated vapour pressure (ASVP) and calculated dry vapour pressure equivalent (DVPE)||
Determination of the total pressure exerted in a vacuum by volatile, low viscosity petroleum products, components, and feedstocks containing air. A dry vapour pressure equivalent (DVPE) can be calculated from the air containing vapour pressure (ASVP) measurement. The conditions used in the test described in this standard are a vapour to liquid ratio of 4:1 and a test temperature of 37.8°C. This standard has precision for both 1 l and 250 ml sample containers. This method described is suitable for testing air-saturated samples that exert an air-saturated vapour pressure of between 9.0 and 150.0 kPa at 37.8°C. This document is applicable to fuels containing oxygenated compounds.
|Hydrocarbon types and oxygenates in automotive motor gasoline - Multidimensional GC method||
Method for the determination of saturated, olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons in motor gasoline (petrol) and ethanol (E85) automotive fuel by gas chromatography (GC) Additionally, the benzene content, oxygenate compounds and the total oxygen content can be determined.
|PIONA / PNA / nPIPNA / OPNA / PONA / PHONA analysis by Reformulyzer GC||
Method for the determination of saturated, olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons in motor gasoline (petrol) and ethanol (E85) automotive fuel by gas chromatography (GC) Additionally, the benzene content, oxygenate compounds and the total oxygen content can be determined.
|Corrosiveness of silver from petroleum products by silver strip test||
This test method covers the determination of the corrosiveness to silver of automotive gasoline. A polished silver strip is immersed in the sample and heated. The level of tarnish on the strip is assessed and rated as a number from 0 - 4.
|Gum content of light and middle distillate fuels - Jet evaporation method||
Determination of the existent gum content of aviation fuels, gum content of motor gasoline or other volatile distillates in their finished form. For non-aviation fuels, a procedure for the determination of the heptane-insoluble portion of the residue is also described.
|Diesel and domestic heating fuels - cold filter plugging point (CFPP)||
Determination of the cold filter plugging point (CFPP) of diesel and domestic heating fuels using either manual or automated test equipment (both of which are suitable for referee purposes). This method is also applicable to fuels containing flow-improving additives and will give an indication of the lowest temperature at which a fuel will give trouble free flow in the fuel system. The difference in results obtained from the sample as received and after heat treatment at 45° C for 30 min can be used to investigate issues observed during use at low temperature.
|Cloud point of petroleum products - Automatic stepped cooling method||
Determination of the cloud point of petroleum products and biodiesel fuels that are transparent in layers 40 mm in thickness by automatic instrument with an optical detection device to record the appearance of the cloud point. The test method is applicable to products with cloud points in the range -60°C to +49 °C. The test method produces results to the nearest 0.1°C, which, when rounded to the nearest lower integer, are equivalent to those of the manual procedure IP219.
|Petroleum products - Determination of cloud point (manual method)||
Method for the determination of the cloud point of petroleum products which are transparent in layers 40 mm in thickness and have a cloud point below 49 °C.
|Petroleum products - Determination of pour point||
Method for the determination of the pour point of petroleum products. A separate procedure suitable for the determination of the lower pour point of fuel oils, heavy lubricant base stock, and products containing residual fuel components is also described.
|Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content in middle distillates - Infrared (IR) spectrometry method||
Determination of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) content in diesel fuel or domestic heating fuel by mid infrared spectrometry. The method covers two ranges - A: FAME contents of 0.05 to 3% (V/V); B: FAME contents of 3 to 20% (V/V). Higher FAME contents can be measured if diluted. This test method is applicable to samples which contain FAME conforming to EN 14214 or EN 14213. Esters and other carbonyl compounds which possess absorption bands in the spectral region used for quantification of FAME will interfere with the result. For conversion of grams FAME per litre (g FAME/l) to volume fraction, a fixed density for FAME of 883.0 kg/m3 is adopted.
|Contamination in middle distillates||
Determination of the content of undissolved substances (total contamination) in the range 12 to 30 mg/kg for diesel fuels (EN 590) containing up to 30% (V/V) fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and neat FAME (EN 14214). For other petroleum the method may be applicable, but no precision data is available. Excessive contamination in a fuel system can give rise to filter blocking or hardware failure.
|Diesel fuel - Assessment of lubricity using the high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR)||
This method determines the lubricating property of diesel fuels (including fuels which may contain a lubricity enhancing additive) using a high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). All diesel fuel injection equipment has some reliance on diesel fuel as a lubricant. Wear due to excessive friction resulting in shortened life of engine components such as diesel fuel injection pumps and injectors has sometimes been attributed to lack of lubricity in fuel. The wear scar on a test ball oscillating, under prescribed conditions, against a steel plate immersed in sample is measured. The ambient conditions during the test are used to correct the size of the wear scar generated on the test ball to a standard set of ambient conditions. The corrected wear scar diameter is a measure of the fluid lubricity. Results are reported as corrected wear scar diameter (WS1.4) to the nearest 1µm at 60°C.
|Derived cetane number (DCN) of diesel fuel oils - Ignition delay and combustion delay using a constant volume combustion chamber method (CID)||
This test method covers the quantitative determination of the derived cetane number of diesel fuels (BS EN590), including those containing cetane improver additives. The test method may also be applied to biodiesel and diesel blending components. This test method utilizes a constant volume combustion chamber with direct fuel injection into heated, compressed synthetic air. A dynamic pressure wave is produced from the combustion of the sample. An equation converts the ignition delay and the combustion delay determined from the dynamic pressure curve to a derived cetane number (DCN). This test method covers the ignition delay ranging from 1.9 to 25 ms and combustion delay ranging from 2.5 to 160 ms (30 to 70 DCN).
|Calculations of cetane index of middle-distillate fuels by the four-variable equation||
Procedure for the calculation of the Cetane Index by Four-variable Equation of middle-distillate fuel. Cetane index is used to estimate the cetane number of diesel fuel when a test engine is not available This calculation is not valid for fuels containing cetane enhancing additives, pure hydrocarbons or distillate fuels derived from coal. It is applicable to fuels containing non-petroleum derivatives from oil shale.
|Oxidation stability of middle distillate fuels||
Method for the measurement of stability of middle-distillate petroleum fuels, in particular diesel, under accelerated aging conditions (oxidation stability) as an indication of the storage stability of the fuel. Method applies to middle distillates with initial boiling point above 175°C and a 90% (v/v) recovery point below 370°C. Oxidation causes the formation of insoluble species. The presence of catalytic species (eg Cu, Cr) will increase the amount of insolubles presents, which will affect the result of this test.
|Acid or base number - Colour indicator titration method||
Colour-indicator titration method for the determination of acid or basic constituents in petroleum products and lubricants. It is applicable for the determination of acids or bases whose dissociation constants in water are greater than 10-9; extremely weak acids or bases whose dissociation constants in water are less than 10-9 do not interfere. Salts react if their hydrolysis constants are greater than 10-9
|Weak and strong acid number - Potentiometric titration method||
Determination of the acidic constituents in petroleum products and lubricating oils in groups with ‘weak acid’ and ‘strong acid’ ionisation properties. The method may be used to indicate as part of condition monitoring of lubricating oil, but is not an absolute measure of acidity. NOTE 1: In new and used lubricating oils, the constituents that may be considered to have acidic characteristics include organic and inorganic acids, esters, phenolic compounds, lactones, resins, salts of heavy metals, salts of ammonia and other weak bases, acid salts of polybasic acids and additives such as inhibitors and detergents. NOTE 2: The acid number obtained by this standard may or may not be numerically the same as that obtained in accordance with IP139.
|Crude petroleum - Determination of water content - Coulometric Karl Fischer titration method||
Determination of water in crude petroleum in the range 0.050 to 5.00% (m/m), by coulometric Karl Fischer titration. The presence of mercaptans or sulphide ion can interfere with this test result.
|Petroleum products - Determination of water - Coulometric Karl Fischer titration method||
Determination of water in petroleum products boiling below 390°C. It covers the mass fraction range 0.003% (m/m) to 0.100% (m/m). It is not applicable to products containing ketones or residual fuel oils. It may be applicable to lubricating base oils; however the precision has not been established for these materials.
|Ethanol as a blending component for petrol - Determination of water content - Karl Fischer Coulometric titration method||
Determination of water in ethanol to be used in gasoline blends, for water content in the range 0.039 to 0.500% (m/m).
|Aromatic hydrocarbon types in middle distillates - HPLC method with refractive index detection (suitable for streams which contain FAME)||
Test method for measuring the aromatic components of diesel and distillates of boiling range 150°C to 400. This method is suitable for diesel containing FAME. Aromatics are grouped as mono, di and tri+. The polycyclic aromatic content is calculated from the sum of di and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons and the total content of aromatic compounds is obtained by addition of all the aromatic groups. The aromatic groupings are based on their chromatography and quantified against a single aromatic component appropriate to each group. Sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen, conjugated di-alkenes and polyalkenes may interfere with this measurement. Mono-alkenes do not interfere.
|ASTM colour of petroleum products||
This method covers the visual determination of the color of a wide variety of petroleum products, such as lubricating oils, heating oils, diesel fuel oils, and petroleum waxes. Results are reported as "ASTM Color." NOTE: Test Method D156 is applicable to refined products that have an ASTM color lighter than 0.5
|Hydrogen sulphide in fuel oils - Rapid liquid phase extraction method||
Determination of the hydrogen sulphide (H2S) content of fuel oils, including marine residual fuels, distillates and petroleum blend stocks, with viscosities up to 3000 mm2s-1 as measured in the liquid phase.
|Carbon content of petroleum products and lubricants *||
A UKAS ISO17025 accredited method determination of total carbon, total hydrogen and total nitrogen in crude oil, fuel oil, lubricants and residues, in the ranges of at least 75 to 87 mass% for carbon; at least 9 to 16 mass% for hydrogen, and 0.1 to 2 mass % for nitrogen. The results are expressed as mass %. The method is not recommended for the analysis of volatile materials such as gasoline, gasoline-oxygenate blends, or gasoline type aviation turbine fuels. Test method D is followed using a Thermo Flash analyser.
|Determination of ash *||
A UKAS ISO17025 accredited method for the determination of the ash content of petroleum products in the range 0.001 - 0.180% (m/m). Method is not applicable when ash-forming additives are present.
|Asphaltenes (heptane insolubles) in crude petroleum and petroleum products||
IP 143 Determination of the heptane insoluble asphaltene content of gas oil, diesel, residual fuel oils, lubricating oil, bitumen and crude petroleum which has been topped to an oil temperature of 260°C. The precision is applicable to values between 0.50% (m/m) and 30.0% (m/m). Values outside this range may still be valid, but precision data is not available. Additives present in oils can affect the result
|Carbon residue - Micro method (MCRT)||
Determination of carbon residue, in the range 0.10 to 30.0% (m/m), left after evaporation and pyrolysis of petroleum products under specified conditions. For products which yield a residue in excess of 0.10% (m/m), the test results are equivalent to those obtained by the Conradson carbon residue test. The carbon residue value may show the tendency of petroleum products to form carbonaceous deposits under similar degradation. Organic nitrates will interfere with the results if present.
|Sulphur content - Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry *||
A UKAS ISO17025 accredited method for the determination of the sulphur content of petroleum products such as naphtha, unleaded motor gasoline, middle distillates, residual fuel oil, base lubricating oil and their components. The method is for products with sulphur content of 0.03 to 5.00 % (m/m). Heavy metal additives, eg lead alkyls, and some elements may interfere with the measurement.
|Aluminium, silicon, vanadium, nickel, iron, sodium, calcium, zinc and phosphorous in residual fuel oil by ashing, fusion and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)||
This standard specifies a procedure for the determination of total aluminium (5 - 150 mg/kg); silicon (10 – 250 mg/kg); sodium (1 – 100 mg/kg); vanadium (1 – 400 mg/kg); nickel (1 – 100 mg/kg); iron (2 – 60 mg/kg); calcium (3 – 100 mg/kg); zinc (1 – 70 mg/kg); phosphorus (1 – 60 mg/kg) in residual fuel oils by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Samples are prepared by ashing, fusion and acid digestion. The sample is then diluted with water and analysed by ICP in aqueous mode.
|Total sediment in residual fuel oils - Part 1: Determination by hot filtration||
Determination of total sediment in residual fuel oils (max viscosity of 55 mm2s-1 at 100 °C) and blends of distillate fuels that have residual components. The method can also be used for the assessment of total sediment in fuels which have been aged (see IP390)
|Total sediment in residual fuel oils - Part 2: Determination using standard procedures for ageing||
Procedure A: Method for the thermal accelerated ageing of residual fuel oils. When combined with the hot filtration method (IP375) gives a prediction the effect of sedimentation on the fuel oil stability over time.
|Crude petroleum and fuel oils: Determination of sediment (extraction method)||
Determination of sediment in crude and fuel oils by toluene extraction in the range 0.01% - 0.40% (m/m). Higher levels may be measured, but there is no associated precision data available. The presence of > 0.1% salt in crude may lead to an erroneously high result.
|Total salts content of crude oil - conductivity method||
Method for the determination of the total salts content of crude oil in the range 5 to 300 mg/l expressed in terms of sodium chloride.
|Organically bound trace nitrogen - Oxidative combustion and chemiluminescence method||
Determination of total nitrogen at 0.3 to 100 mg/kg in naphtha, distillates and oil which boil in the range 50 to 400°C and have viscosity between 0.2 and 10 cSt (mm2s-1) at room temperature.
|Colour of clear liquids: Platinum-Cobalt scale||
Visual determination of the colour of light coloured liquids. It is applicable only to materials in which the colour-producing bodies present have light absorption characteristics nearly identical with those of the platinum-cobalt colour standards used.
|Composition of LPG and propylene concentrates - Gas chromatography method||
Determination of the composition of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). It is applicable to analysis of propane, propylene and butane in all concentration ranges 0.1% and above.
|Analysis of natural gas streams *||
A UKAS ISO17025 accredited method for the determination of the chemical composition of natural gases and similar gaseous mixtures by gas chromatography (GC) analysis, using a specific Natural Gas Analyser (NGA). It is suitable for determining C1 – C5 alkanes, air (nitrogen and oxygen co-elute) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Heavy ends greater than nC5s are grouped as a single peak, backflushed off the column. Components are measured within the range 0.01 – 100 %mol. This method is based on ASTM D1945 - 03 with a modification to the column selection. This method uses different columns from those suggested in the standard and cannot separate nitrogen and oxygen. This method is not suitable for samples containing olefins as these components may co-elute with the alkanes.
|Commercial propane and butane - Analysis by gas chromatography (GC) *||
BS EN 27941-94 (modified)
BS EN 27941 (modified) / IP405: This standard specifies a gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbons in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), excluding components whose concentrations are below 0.1% (rn/rn). It is applicable to the analysis of propane, butane and their commercial mixtures, which may include saturated and unsaturated C2, C3 C4 and C5 hydrocarbons. This is a UKAS ISO17025 accredited method.
|Boiling range distribution of petroleum fractions by gas chromatography (SIMDIS)||
This test method covers the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by simulated distillation (SimDis), gas chromatography (GC) analysis. SimDis analysis provides the true boiling point distribution (TBP) of petroleum streams. True boiling point (TBP) data is a key parameter in characterising refinery streams and improving refinery profit margins. TBP is also used to develop cut point information and boiling point curves for process operations control. Simdis can be performed on a wide range of samples up to 750°C.
|Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in commercial butane and propane (Stain test)||
BS 4250; Specification for commercial butane and commercial propane: Annex C; Method for determination of hydrogen sulfide in commercial butane or commercial propane: A measured volume of vaporized gas is passed through a prepared paper and the stain obtained is compared with standard stains. The concentrations determined are in the range 0.75 mg/m3 to 6 mg/m3.
|Residues in liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)||
Determination of the extraneous materials weathering above 38°C that are present in Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG). These materials will generally be dissolved in the LPG, but may have phase-separated in some instances. The test provides an indication of the quantity and nature of the materials in the LPG, that are substantially less volatile than the liquefied petroleum gas hydrocarbons. However, this technique may not be sensitive enough for some applications. The presence of anti-icing additives can affect the result of this test. Definitions of terms specific to this standard method: Residue - the volume, measured to the nearest 0.05ml, of the residual material boiling above 38°C resulting from the evaporation of 100ml of sample under specified condition of this test method. Oil stain observation- the volume of solvent-residue mixture required to yield an oil stain or ring that persists for 2 minutes under specified conditions on absorbent paper.
|Determination of residue of hydrocarbon liquids on evaporation by water bath||
Determination of mass of residue, if any, after evaporation of a test portion on a hot water bath and drying to constant mass at 110°C. Applicable to organic liquids which can be volatized on a hot water bath.
|Analysis of ethylene product by gas chromatography (GC)||
Determination of carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, acetylene, and other hydrocarbons in high-purity ethylene. The percent ethylene is obtained by subtracting the sum of the percentages of the hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon impurities from 100. The method is applicable over the range of impurities from 1 to 500 parts per million volume (ppmV).
|Microbiological analysis in fuels, lubricant and water samples||
Detection and enumeration of contaminating microbes in fuel, lubricants and water. Many microbes are able to grow in water or dispersed in fuels and oils, attacking and feeding on the hydrocarbons and the additives present and causing fouling and corrosion. This test method can be used for petroleum products, such as aviation fuel, marine diesels, gas oils, heavy fuels, automotive diesel and gasoline, bio-fuels, lubricants and hydraulic oils. The test will also detect microbes in water, eg from the tank drains, and other fluids. This method detects the important bacteria, yeasts and mould which can contaminate petroleum products including Hormoconis resinae, Aspergillus, Candida and Pseudomonas species.
|Analysis of ethanol as a blending component for petrol by gas chromatography (GC)||
Gas chromatography (GC) method for ethanol, to measure higher alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, butan-2-ol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol (isobutanol), 2-methylbutan-1-ol, and 3-methylbutan-1-ol) from 0.1 to 2.5% (m/m); methanol from 0.1 to 3% (m/m) and other components from 0.1 to 2% (m/m). BS EN 15376 (Ethanol as a blending component for petrol) sets a limit for the combined result of ethanol + higher alcohols, not the ethanol content itself. Due to possible interferences, the method is not applicable to denatured ethanol samples. Water, will not be detected by this method and needs to be considered separately in the calculations.
|Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) fuel and blends with diesel fuel - Determination of oxidation stability by accelerated oxidation method (Rancimat)||
Method for the determination of the oxidation stability of fuels for diesel engines, by means of measuring the induction period of the fuel. The method is applicable to: • Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which is intended for use as pure biofuel or as a blending component for diesel fuels. • Blends of FAME with diesel fuel containing a minimum of 2% v/v of FAME
|Composition of fuel gas streams by Hi-speed refinery gas analyser (RGA)*||
Fuel Gas by RGA
A UKAS ISO17025 accredited method for the analysis of Fuel Gas by Hi-speed RGA analyser. The method will detect and measure helium, hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, ethene, propane, propene, n-butane, iso-butane, trans-2-butene, iso-butene, 1-butene, cis-2-butene, 1,3-butadiene, cyclopropane, propadiene, acetylene, n-pentane, iso-pentane, components heavier than n-C5 are determined as a single group. The method uses total peak area normalisation. The range, in %mol, for the components are: methane, 0.01 - 91.1; ethane, 0.01 - 99.9; ethane, 0.01 - 36.3; propane, 0.01 - 99.9; propene, 0.01 - 20.0; n-butane, 0.01 - 23.4; iso-butane, 0.01 - 10.2; trans-2-butene, 0.01 - 4.0; iso-butene, 0.01 - 2.0; 1-butene, 0.01 - 4.1; cis-2-butene, 0.01 - 2.0; 1,3 butadiene, 0.01 - 5.8; n-pentane, 0.01 - 3.1; iso-pentane, 0.01 - 4.2; cyclopropane, 0.01 - 0.09; propadiene, 0.01 - 1.9; acetylene, 0.01 - 2.0; >n-pentane, 0.01 - 4.0; H2S, 0.1 - 2.0; H2, 0.01 - 99.9; He, 0.01 - 99.9; CO2, 0.02 - 10.0; CO, 0.02 - 6.2; N2, 0.02 - 75;O2, 0.02 - 20.0.
|Analysis by Hi-speed refinery gas analyser (RGA)||
RGA (In house method)
The Hi Speed RGA analyser is suitable for the analysis of multi component samples, with or without Hydrogen Sulphide present. The method will measure C1 – nC5 and heavy ends >n-C5 determined as a group. The method will also measure helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Results are normalised and may be reported in ppm mol or weight. Hi Speed RGA has lower detection limits of 0.01%mol for hydrocarbons; 0.02%mol for fixed gases; 0.1%mol H2S. Depending on the matrix of the sample, there are restrictions for the fixed gases. The upper limits are H2S 10%; H2 99.9%; He 10%; CO2 10%; CO 10%; N2 75%; O2 20%. Notes: (1) Low pressure samples should be air free. (2) Hi Speed RGA is not suitable for samples containing polar components as these will affect the normalised results.
|Trace fixed gases by gas chromatography with helium ionisation detector (GC HID)||
Trace fixed gases by GC HID (In house method)
Determination of trace levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen, methane and nitrogen in ethene and propene streams by GC helium ionisation detector (HID) Individual impurities may be reported to the nearest 0.1ppm down to 0.1ppm. Maximum levels have not been defined for individual components; the detector is not linear and measurements above 200 ppm mol cannot be guaranteed. For samples with fixed gases higher than 200ppm mol, refer to the Hi Speed RGA method.
|Sulphur compounds in liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), gases and liquids by gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detector (GC PFPD)||
Sulphur by GC PFPD (In house method)
Determination of low levels of sulphur compounds in hydrocarbon liquid, LPG and gas streams. This method is applicable to samples with boiling points below 225°C. Liquid sample components are measured in the concentration range 0.1 - 60ppm wt. Gas samples components are measured in the concentration range 2 - 60ppm mol. The sulphur specific detector used in this application can be assumed to be unimolar for all sulphur species. The detector will measure the lifetime and intensity of the sulphur emission, using electronics to filter the unwanted noise from the system. This method should not be used as a direct replacement for total sulphur measured by other methods as it is constrained by the chromatography separation and boiling point of the samples; some co-elution of the hydrocarbons can occur with the sulphur species, eg carbonyl sulphide (COS) cannot be detected in C3s. Note that samples with free water cannot be analysed as the silco-steel coating on the sample panel and the GC could be compromised by contact with water or caustic.
|Water Analysis - pH||
IN-HOUSE METHOD LM-WATER-29
This method determines pH using a meter in the range of pH 4 to pH 12.45. The pH scale gives a measure of acidity or alkalinity at a specified temperature (20ºC or 25ºC). Sample types tested are boiler feed, boiler blowdown, condensate, water wash and unknown aqueous samples. This method complies with BS EN ISO 10523.
|Water Analysis - Total Suspended Solids||
IN-HOUSE METHOD LM-HSE-10
This method is used to determine suspended solids present in raw water, waste water and effluents by filtration through glass fibre filters. The lower limit of the determination is about 2mg/l. No upper limit has been established. Water samples are not always stable which means that the content of suspended solids depends on storage time, means of transportation, pH value and other circumstances. Results obtained with unstable samples need to be treated with caution. Floating oil and other immiscible organic liquids will interfere (see EN 872, Annex A). This method complies with EN 872.
|Effluent Analysis - pH*||
DOCUMENTED IN-HOUSE METHOD LM-WATER-29 TO BS EN 10523:2012
A UKAS ISO 17025 accredited method to determine pH, using a meter in the range of pH 4 to pH 12.45 The pH scale gives a measure of acidity or alkalinity at a specified temperature (20ºC or 25ºC). Sample types tested are final effluent This method complies with BS EN ISO 10523.
|Effluent Analysis - Total Suspended Solids*||
DOCUMENTED IN-HOUSE METHOD LM-HSE-10 TO BS EN 872:2005
A UKAS ISO 17025 accredited method to determine suspended solids present final effluent by filtration through glass fibre filters. The lower limit of the determination is about 2mg/l. No upper limit has been established. Water samples are not always stable which means that the content of suspended solids depends on storage time, means of transportation, pH value and other circumstances. Results obtained with unstable samples need to be treated with caution. Floating oil and other immiscible organic liquids will interfere (see EN 872, Annex A). This method complies with EN 872.
|Effluent Analysis - Chemical Oxygen Demand*||
Documented In-House Method LM-HSE-28
A UKAS ISO 17025 accredited method to determine Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). COD is the mass concentration of oxygen equivalent to the amount of dichromate consumed by dissolved and suspended matter when a water sample is treated with that oxidant under defined conditions. It is expressed in mass of oxygen consumed over a volume of solution in mg/l.
|Effluent Analysis - Oil in Water*||
Documented In-House Method LM-HSE-26
A UKAS ISO 17025 accredited method to determine total oil in effluent using a FTIR instrument. The effluent is extracted with solvent then treated to remove non-hydrocarbon compounds and analysed for hydrocarbon content by infrared absorption of C-H stretching vibrations.